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My Speciality

Orenburg State University is one of the biggest, one of the most modern higher educational establishment in Orenburg region.

The faculty of Computer Sciences (FCS) of Orenburg State University trains specialists in the field of electronics and computing technique. One of its departments is called Software for Computing Technique and Automatic Systems (SCTAS).

This course is for students wishing to become computer professionals. We learn to write different programs. This programs can be designed [dɪ'zaɪnd]

to solve a wide range of tasks. So we need to study a lot of disciplines including mathematics, physic, computer graphics, operating systems, Data Bases and many many more. And it's really difficult, but this speciality gives me great perspectives for the future.




Types of computers

There are two types of computers, the analogue and the digital.

Basically, today's analogue computer is a device-for measuring such physical quantities as lengths and voltages. However, the analogue computer is limited to special classes of problems and when most people say "computer" today, they mean the digital computer. The modern electronic digital-computer counts with incredible speed using only two numbers-the one and zero of what mathematicians call the binary system. All information stored in binary system, including instructions of information processing. These instructions are called the program. Computer cannot actually think, performs all of its functions by program. {C}




Stages of programming

The fundamental principles of programming are connected with the stages of programming. {C}

There are five stages of programming. First, the over- all plan of the computations is diagramed by means of so-called flow chart. The second stage is the actual coding. In the third stage some procedure is used to get the code into the memory of the computer. The fourth stage consists of debugging the code, that is detecting and correcting any errors. {C}

The fifth and final stage involves running the code on the computer and tabulating the results. In fact , it is well known that a single error in one instruction invalidates the entire code. Hence, programming is a technique requiring attention to details without loosing sight of the over-all plan. {C}




Bill Bill

Bill Gates is chairman of Microsoft Corporation, the worldwide leader in software, services and solutions that help people and businesses realize their full potential.

Born on 1955, Gates grew up in Seattle with his two sisters. Their father is a Seattle attorney. Their late mother was a schoolteacher, and chairwoman of United Way International. {C}

Gates finished public elementary school and the private Lakeside School. There, he discovered his interest in software and began programming computers at age 13. {C}

In 1973, Gates entered Harvard University. While at Harvard, Gates developed a version of the programming language BASIC for the first microcomputer Altair. {C}

In his junior year, Gates left Harvard to devote his energies to Microsoft, a company he had begun in 1975 with his childhood friend Paul Allen. Guided by a belief that the computer would be a valuable tool on every office desktop and in every home, they began developing software for personal computers. {C}

By 1980, IBM had decided to build personal computers and needed a PC operating system. IBM hired Microsoft to build its operating system. In 1985 was released the first version of Microsoft Windows operation system.

Step by step, Microsoft seized the world. Currently, Microsoft Windows is installed on more than 89% of personal computers.

Gates was married on 1994, to Melinda Gates. They have three children. in the same year was based a charitable foundation

On 2006, Microsoft announced that effective July 2008 Gates will transition out of a day-to-day role in the company to spend more time on his global health and education work at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. After July 2008, Gates will continue to serve as Microsoft’s chairman and an advisor on key development projects.



Tim Berners-Lee

Currently, most of us use the internet every day, for shopping, to communicate, to find some information, to play a games or learning, and many other things we can do in the internet. But few know that the concept of the World Wide Web was developed by one person whose name is Tim Berners-Lee.

Raised in London in the 1960s, Berners-Lee was the quintessential child of the computer age. His parents met while working on the Ferranti Mark I, the first computer sold commercially. They taught him to think unconventionally; he'd play games over the breakfast table with imaginary numbers (what's the square root of minus 4?). He made pretend computers out of cardboard boxes and five-hole paper tape and fell in love with electronics. Later, at Oxford, he built his own working electronic computer out of spare parts and a TV set. He also studied physics, which he thought would be a lovely compromise between math and electronics. "Physics was fun," he recalls. "And in fact a good preparation for creating a global system."

In 1980 Berners-Lee was a software engineer at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, in Geneva. There he developed the program “Enquire”, that laid the foundation for World Wide Web.

In 1989 he offered for CERN the project, currently known as the World Wide Web. This project was approved, and Berners-Lee begins to implement its.

In 1991 Berners-Lee was create first online website. Within five years, the number of Internet users jumped to 40 millions.

It's hard to overstate the impact of the global system he created.interesting that,Berners-Lee chose the nonprofit road,both for himself and his creation,although he could be one of the richest people in the world.


Внеаудиторное чтение

http://news.cnet.com/8301-1023_3-57360925-93/internet-now-active-with-2.1-billion-users/?tag=epicStories

You're one of the 2.1 billion people actively using the Internet.

Looking at the state of the online world throughout 2011, traffic site Pingdom found that the number of Internet users has jumped from a mere 360 million at the end of 2000 and now accounts for 30 percent of the planet's population.

Sweeping across the continents, Asia holds 922 million Internet users, Europe has 476 million, and North America is in third place with 271 million. Drilling down to individual countries, China is on top with 485 million people using the Internet, more than 36 percent of its total population.

Pingdom-internet-users

http://news.cnet.com
















(Credit: Pingdom)


Revealing other data from different third-party sources, Pingdom discovered 3.1 billion e-mail accounts worldwide in 2011. Microsoft Outlook proved the most popular client with a 27 percent market share, while Hotmail was the most popular service with 360 million users. 2011 also marked the 40th anniversary of the first e-mail ever sent.

The number of global Web sites shot up to 555 million in December, with 300 million of those added just last year. And the number of registered domains reached 220 million in last year's third quarter. Domain names with a .com address were the most prevalent at 95.5 million.

Social media and mobile traffic continued to skyrocket, according to Pingdom's information.

By the end of 2011, Facebook had more than 800 million users, 200 million of which joined the service just last year. The number of Twitter accounts rose to 225 million, with 100 million active users in 2011. Lady Gaga ended 2011 as the most popular person on Twitter, currently followed by 18.1 million people, while #Egypt was the top hashtag on the site last year. Overall, 2.4 billion social network accounts flooded cyberspace in 2011.

By the end of the year, the number of mobile subscriptions was estimated at 5.9 billion in a world of 7 billion people altogether. Active mobile broadband accounts numbered 1.2 billion. And with more mobile phone users hopping onto the Internet, 85 percent of all handsets shipped in 2011 included a Web browser.

So, what's up for this year?

"For 2012, there's every reason to think that the Internet, by any measure, will keep growing," said Pingdom in a blog post. "As we put more of our personal as well as professional lives online, we will come to rely on the Internet in ways we could hardly imagine before. For better or worse, the Internet is now a critical component in almost everything we do."

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